Dovato is a combination medication that contains dolutegravir, and lamivudine. It is used on its own as a standalone antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for HIV-1 in adults with no previous HIV antiviral treatment history and no known resistance mutations to the ingredients in Dovato.
Although it is not a cure for HIV, when taken as directed, it allows for the virus to be suppressed. This prevents further transmission of HIV and allows an individual’s immune system to improve through increasing CD4 cell counts and decreasing the amount of active virus in the blood (viral load).
What are the ingredients in Dovato?
The main ingredients in Dovato are dolutegravir, and lamivudine. Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), while dolutegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI, also known as an integrase inhibitor).
How does Dovato work?
Dovato is a combination of an NRTI medication and an integrase inhibitor. NRTIs stop the reverse transcription step of the HIV life cycle. Normally, HIV uses its reverse transcriptase enzyme to build a strand of DNA from its original RNA form. In order to do this, it uses genetic building blocks called nucleosides that come from the host cell. These nucleosides are strung together one at a time, like beads on a string, to create the final DNA product.
NRTIs act as nucleoside mimics that stop the DNA-building process. NRTIs look like normal nucleosides, except they’re missing a special chemical group on one side. Without this group, the reverse transcriptase enzyme is unable to attach more nucleosides to the chain after them. This prevents the full string of DNA from being formed, preventing HIV RNA from making it all the way through the reverse transcription process.
How do integrase inhibitors work?
After HIV RNA is reverse transcribed into newly-formed DNA, it gets integrated into the host cell DNA using an enzyme called integrase. This allows HIV to be actively replicated with the rest of our DNA as our cell carries out its normal functions.
Integrase inhibitors can be used to block the integrase enzyme and prevent the integration of HIV DNA into our host cells. If HIV’s DNA cannot be inserted into our host cells’ genome, the virus cannot continue to be replicated, assembled into mature virus particles, and released into the blood to continue infecting other cells.
What are the possible side effects of Dovato?
The most common side effects of Dovato include, but are not limited to:
Things to note about Dovato
As with any medication, there are several very rare but serious risks that need to be considered before taking Dovato. Your healthcare provider can help determine what issues you may be at risk for and help determine what treatment options are the safest for you. It’s also important to remember that the risk of one or more of these issues occurring is low, and the benefits of treating the virus often greatly outweigh the risks.
Several of these rare but serious side effects of Dovato include liver issues and an increase of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis). Signs of liver issues include, but are not limited to:
- Dark-colored urine
- Loss of appetite
- Yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin
- Light-colored bowel movements
- Pain or tenderness on the right side of your stomach
Signs of lactic acidosis include, but are not limited to:
- Trouble breathing
- Feeling cold, especially in the limbs
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Feeling tired or weak
- Muscle pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Irregular or fast heartbeat
If you have hepatitis B virus and start taking Dovato, your hepatitis B may get worse. Individuals taking a medication called dofetilide should not take Dovato, as serious or life-threatening side effects may occur.
Rarely, allergic reactions may occur with Dovato and may be serious. Alert your healthcare provider if you notice any of the following:
- Skin blisters or peeling
- Mouth sores
- Swelling of the lips, mouth, face, or throat
- Trouble breathing or swallowing
- Redness or swelling of the eyes
- Generally feeling ill
- Muscles or joint aches
Before starting Dovato, tell your doctor if you:
- Have or previously had hepatitis B virus
- Have or previously had hepatitis C virus
- Have a history of liver or kidney problems
- Are pregnant or planning to become pregnant
- Are breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed
- Are taking any over-the-counter vitamins, supplements, medicines, or herbal remedies
- Are on any other medications or are about to start any other medications, including hormonal birth control or medications for hepatitis viruses
Dovato may cause a condition called IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). IRIS occurs when an individual’s immune system gets stronger after being weak and responds aggressively to previously hidden infections. This heightened response may make the person fighting the infection feel worse. Alert your healthcare provider immediately if you begin to have new symptoms after taking Dovato.
The most common dosage of Dovato is one tablet taken by mouth each day. A tablet contains 50 mg of dolutegravir and 300 mg of lamivudine. An additional dosage of dolutegravir may be needed for individuals taking certain medications, including medications called carbamazepine or rifampin. It is important to take your medication exactly as prescribed, and to not stop or change your Dovato dosage without talking to your healthcare provider first. Dovato can be taken with or without food. If you miss a dose of Dovato, take the next dose as soon as you remember; however, never take two at a time. If you take too much Dovato, seek medical attention immediately.
If you take antacids, laxatives, iron supplements, calcium supplements, or medicines that contain aluminum, or magnesium, your dosing schedule of Dovato may need to be adjusted. Your healthcare provider will let you know what schedule you should be on based on other medications and supplements you take.1,2
- Dovato. United States Department of Health and Human Services: AIDSinfo. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/drugs/608/dovato/0/patient/. Published April 9, 2019. Accessed July 20, 2019.
- Dovato Prescribing Information. United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2019/211994s000lbl.pdf. Published April 2019. Accessed July 20, 2019.