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Truvada for PrEP

Truvada is a combination medication that contains emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Truvada is used with other antiretroviral agents as a part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1 in children and adults who weigh at least 37 pounds (17 kg).

Although it is not a cure for HIV, when taken as directed, it allows for the virus to be suppressed. This prevents further transmission of HIV and allows an individual’s immune system to improve through increasing CD4 cell counts and decreasing viral load.

Truvada for PrEP

Truvada is also used for HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) along with safer sex practices to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV. Individuals taking Truvada for PrEP should be HIV-negative and should be at least 77 pounds (35 kg). PrEP is intended to be used by individuals who may be at an increased risk of getting HIV, including those who have a sexual partner with HIV.

How effective is Truvada when used for PrEP?

When taken as directed, PrEP may decrease the risk of HIV transmission by 92 percent in men who have sex with men, and 90 percent in heterosexual couples. PrEP may also reduce the risk of HIV transmission in individuals who inject drugs by 70 percent, and in all situations, these numbers may increase or decrease based on how effectively and consistently PrEP is taken. When an individual is taking PrEP, they must follow-up with a healthcare provider every few months.1-3

What are the ingredients in Truvada?

The main ingredients in Truvada are emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Both medications are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).

How does Truvada work?

Truvada is a combination of two NRTI medications. These medications stop the reverse transcription step of the HIV life cycle. Normally, HIV uses its reverse transcriptase enzyme to build a strand of DNA from its original RNA form. In order to do this, it uses genetic building blocks called nucleosides that come from the host cell. These nucleosides are strung together one at a time, like beads on a string, to create the final DNA product.

NRTIs act as nucleoside mimics that stop the DNA-building process. NRTIs look like normal nucleosides, except they’re missing a special chemical group on one side. Without this group, the reverse transcriptase enzyme is unable to attach more nucleosides to the chain after them.

What are the possible side effects of Truvada?

The most common side effects of Truvada include, but are not limited to:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Abnormal dreams
  • Rash
  • Depression
  • Insomnia
  • Headache
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss

Things to note about Truvada

When used for PrEP, the individual taking Truvada must be HIV-negative. If a previously HIV-negative individual becomes HIV-positive while taking Truvada, they must begin a new treatment regimen, as Truvada on its own is not indicated for HIV treatment.

Individuals taking Truvada for PrEP must get tested for HIV every few months, as well as tested for other sexually transmitted infections. Truvada for PrEP is most effective when combined with safer sex methods such as using latex or polyurethane condoms during sex.

As with any medication, there are several very rare but serious risks that need to be considered before taking Truvada. Your healthcare provider can help determine what issues you may be at risk for and help determine what treatment options are the safest for you. It’s also important to remember that the risk of one or more of these issues occurring is low, and the benefits of preventing the spread of the virus often greatly outweigh the risks.

Several of these rare but serious side effects of Truvada include liver issues and an increase of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis). Signs of liver issues include, but are not limited to:

  • Dark-colored urine
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin
  • Light-colored bowel movements
  • Pain or tenderness on the right side of your stomach

Signs of lactic acidosis include, but are not limited to:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Feeling cold, especially in the limbs
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Muscle pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Irregular or fast heartbeat

If you have hepatitis B virus and start taking Truvada, your hepatitis B may get worse. On rare occasions, Truvada may cause new or worsening kidney issues. This includes an increased risk of kidney failure. Your healthcare provider will need to monitor your kidney function before you start and while taking Truvada. Rarely, bone issues may happen while taking Truvada, including, but not limited to, bone pain, thinning, or softening. These problems may lead to bone fractures.

Psychiatric issues such as depression or mood changes may also occur. Contact your healthcare provider as soon as possible if you experience these or any suicidal thoughts or ideations. There are several medications that should not be taken with Truvada. It is important to tell your doctor about any and all medications you are taking to ensure you are taking Truvada safely.

Before starting Truvada, tell your doctor if you:

  • Have or previously had hepatitis B virus
  • Have a history of liver or kidney problems
  • Have a history of bone problems
  • Have a history of mental illness, depression, or suicidal thoughts
  • Are pregnant or planning to become pregnant
  • Are breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed
  • Are taking any over-the-counter vitamins, supplements, medicines, or herbal remedies
  • Are on any other medications or are about to start any other medications, including hormonal birth control or medications for hepatitis viruses

Truvada may cause a condition called IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). IRIS occurs when an individual’s immune system gets stronger after being weak and responds aggressively to previously hidden infections. This heightened response may make the person fighting the infection feel worse. Alert your healthcare provider immediately if you begin to have new symptoms after taking Truvada.

Truvada comes in several different doses. The dosage an individual takes may vary based on their age, weight, other medical conditions, and whether or not they are using Truvada for the treatment of HIV-1 with other HIV medications or on its own for PrEP. It is important to take your medication exactly as prescribed: do not stop or change your Truvada dosage without talking to your healthcare provider first. Truvada can be taken with or without food.

If you miss a dose of Truvada, take your missed dose as soon as you remember and your next regularly scheduled dose at its normal time. However, if it is close to the time of your next dose, just take your next dose only. Do not take more than one dose of Truvada in one day. If you take too much Truvada, seek medical attention immediately.4,5

Written by: Casey Hribar | Last reviewed: September 2019
  1. Effectiveness of Prevention Strategies to Reduce the Risk of Acquiring or Transmitting HIV. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published March 7, 2017. Accessed July 25, 2019.
  2. HIV/AIDS Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published January 16, 2019. Accessed July 25, 2019.
  3. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published May 28, 2019. Accessed July 25, 2019.
  4. Truvada. United States Department of Health and Human Services: AIDSinfo. Published February 15, 2019. Accessed July 25, 2019.
  5. Truvada Prescribing Information. Gilead Sciences, Inc. Published May 2018. Accessed July 25, 2019.